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Oïl: Production and import in Sénégal

± 695,000 vehicles circulate in Senegal in 2020, (National Agency for Statistics and Demography – ANSD), this includes all types of vehicles, passenger cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, mopeds, taxis (± 30 thousand units) without count vehicles entering the territory that are not registered, and agricultural equipment such as tractors and all informal transport.

Senegal is highly dependent on imports of petroleum products, as it produces only a small amount of crude oil on its territory, the SAR - African Refining Company, gives 98% of the total consumption of imported petroleum products in Senegal.

With growth and GDP at 6.1% (2021), the energy needs to support its growth will mainly be used for transport, domestic electricity and industries.

Thus the consumption and distribution of petroleum products have increased considerably, going from 3 distributors in 1990 to 83 holders of a distribution license in 2021 and a consumption of 1 million tonnes in 1998 to ± 2.5 million.

Transport accounted for around 57% of total consumption, with a strong majority of demand coming from the use of fuels for cars, trucks, motorcycles and boats.

Electricity accounted for about 22% of total consumption, with the use of liquid fuels for electricity generation in power stations.

Industries accounted for about 21% of total consumption, with the use of petroleum products as fuels for machinery and industrial equipment.

Senegal depends primarily on imports to meet its energy needs, largely because its domestic oil production is limited. However, with the recent discoveries of oil and gas in the country, it is possible that import dependence will decrease in the future, while oil and gas exports will increase.

Gas and oil fields in Senegal

New to the oil industry, Senegal has recently seen a significant increase in oil and gas discoveries, with the country's first oil field, the Sangomar field, being discovered in 2014 off the southern coast of Senegal.

The Sangomar field is operated by an international consortium comprising Woodside Energy (45%), Scotland's Cairn Energy (40%), Australia's FAR Ltd (15%) and Société des Pétroles du Sénégal (Petrosen) (10%) . Oil production from this field is scheduled to begin in 2023 with an initial production of approximately 100,000 barrels per day.

To this must be added the work carried out by Eiffage Génie Civil Marine, on the Grand Tortue/Ahmeyim field on the maritime border between Senegal and Mauritania, which should begin production in 2023-24 with a production of ± 2, 5 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas per year.

The main importers

Senegal mainly imports crude oil and refined petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel and kerosene. The main oil importers in Senegal are international oil companies such as Total, Vivo Energy, and Petrosen.

Present in Senegal since 1976, Total is one of the largest suppliers of petroleum products in Senegal, followed closely by the Dutch Vivo Energy.

Vivo Energy specializes in the distribution and marketing of fuels and lubricants. It is present in 23 countries in Africa and operates a network of more than 2,000 service stations under the Shell and Engen brands.

Established in 2011, Vivo Energy is headquartered in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and is equally owned by Switzerland's Vitol, one of the world's largest oil trading companies, and London's Helios Investment Partners, investment fund specializing in emerging markets in Africa.

Will Senegal be independent of imports after extraction

Senegal has discovered offshore oil and natural gas reserves in recent years, notably in the Grand Tortue Ahmeyim field shared with Mauritania, and plans to start producing oil in 2023. Even with domestic oil production, Senegal will not be independent of imports of petroleum products, like other countries in the world without oil fields.

Senegal will have to diversify with an energy mix and develop alternative energy sources (solar, wind and hydraulic) in order to reduce its dependence on imports of petroleum products. His luck, exceptional sunshine (± 3000 hours of sunshine per year) which could allow him a technological evolution with investments in solar energy.

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